社會資源不均,分配捐款的「中介機構」面臨角色定位挑戰

社會資源不均,分配捐款的「中介機構」面臨角色定位挑戰


最近六龜高中因為學測放榜無人達到 40 級分引起關注,
該校學務主任回應質疑表示,除了學業成績不能代表一切,城鄉差距也展現在隱而未顯的面向。例如硬體及教師程度或許不是問題,但學校行政能量不足造成偏鄉教師的額外負擔。更重要的是,當地家庭在經濟和觀念上的支持程度限制了孩子繼續升學的資源和意願。這位主任進而指出孩子在當地社經結構下的無奈──

「他們有他們自己的問題,但不是什麼問題都在他們。」

階級世襲、驅離弱勢、社會流動僵固

社會流動趨於僵固並不是臺灣獨有的狀況,學者普特南(Robert D. Putnam)在《階級世代》一書中提到,美國孩子的機會不平等逐年加劇,甚至學齡前就已横亙了巨大落差:中上階級的父母有較多時間陪伴孩子、給予刺激,培養孩子的認知與非認知技巧;窮人家的孩子則時常面臨家庭的崩解,或在隔代教養的環境中長大。於是家庭環境、教養方式、學校、社區、社會資本的差異,深遠地影響了不同階級孩子的流動機會。

另一位學者切提(Raj Chetty)則以美國國稅局提供的 12 億份數據進行分析,父母所得分配在最後 20% 者,其個人所得分配達到前 20% 的機會也有顯著的區域差異:生活在加州聖荷西,擺脫貧困的機率約是北卡羅來納州夏洛特的 3 倍(註 1)。

圖/Wendy Aros-Routman @ unsplash

換句話說,不管是曾出現國際少見的社會階級翻轉的「臺灣奇蹟」(註 2),抑或是孕育 Google、Amazon 等頂尖企業的資本主義美國,如今都處於財富集中弱勢者被烙印甚至驅離的流沙之中。而這樣的機會不平等同時危及經濟成長與民主效能,最後整體社會很可能將被迫付出更多成本。

對於這樣的困境,六龜高中的例子也說明了僅依賴金錢或硬體的投入並不足夠,因為仍舊忽視了地區經濟衰退、勞動家庭被迫外出或延長工時,以及個別核心家庭獨自承擔碎片化的養育責任等結構問題。普特南認為,應該將所有孩子都視為「我們的孩子」,以集體的力量看顧。也就是說,召喚在地社群或部落的力量,才能實際緩解資源不均所造成的機會不平等,創造更具包容性(inclusive)的社會。

圖/Kuo-Chiao Lin @ unsplash

深耕在地,讓力量由下而生

長久以來,臺灣在地力量發展的主軸有 2:政策上為了建構「生命共同體」的社區營造政策,還有 921 及莫拉克等重大災難的家園重建。不管是著重精神面的再造,或是偏重硬體的資源投放,對應前述的機會不平等問題仍有不足之處,因此在地組織的面貌也有反思之後的新發展。

以臺北萬華區為例,雖然是北市發展較早的地方,但隨著都市重心外移、人口老化、外地移入中低收所得家庭,弱勢族群比例相對較高。南萬華的青年次分區(青年公園附近 7 個里)低收入戶比例為 4.36%,約為全臺或北巿平均值的 2 倍,另外還有許多因為臺灣經濟結構變遷而未能呈現在統計數據上的近貧家庭。

在該地服務多年的臺灣社區實踐協會,最初因為勞動階級家長奔波忙碌無暇陪伴學童,而開始了社區孩子課後照顧。在多年與社區的密切互動與信任下,居民及商家更支持在地事務,該協會也嘗試推動各種新型態的社區經濟模式。像是成立社區托育人員訓練班,讓社區婦女可取得由政府認證的第 2 專長;與屬性相近的友好團體結盟舉辦「培根市集」,以「培力」與「草根」為主軸,讓服務對象可以接觸更多人,也有額外收入;最近則協助新住民媽媽開辦餐館「越窩越好」,希望藉由扶植在地的「微力量」,張開一個接住更多人的大網。

2017 年秋季培根市集。圖/培根市集 fb

中介機構的角色定位與挑戰

如果沒有聯合勸募長年穩定的支持,臺灣社區實踐協會就難找到資源和底氣去創新服務模式,更深入到社會問題的結構之中。簡言之,除了公部門,聯合勸募這樣的中介機構正是資源輸送的關鍵樞鈕:一方面,中介機構基於對社會議題的專業,統籌調度及分配資源到最後一哩;另一方面,中介機構因為必須直接面對捐款人,所以也擔負了面向社會溝通(或教育)的責任。

然而,伴隨著社會及科技發展,中介機構近年卻面臨嚴苛的挑戰。在美國,像聯合勸募這樣傳統的中介機構捐款顯著下滑,而較可以讓捐款人指定用途或對象的「捐贈人建議基金」(donor-advised fund,如 Give2Asia)規模首度超越一般中介機構捐款。這所代表的主要意涵是,捐款人希望對於捐款有更多的主導權、與所關心的議題直接連結,確認自己在社會變革中的貢獻,也就是「去中介化」的「策略性慈善」(strategic philanthropy)。相應的是,傳統代為決定如何分配資源的中介機構必須更強而有力的證明自身的專業,而且花費更多心力與捐款人溝通──

為什麼透過中介機構捐款更有效益?資源分配的邏輯是否清楚透明且具說服力?稽核觀點固然重要,但創造社會影響力究竟為何?總和來說創造了什麼社會改變,並以捐款人聽得懂的語言說明?捐款人如何從中得到參與感及成就感?是否有中長期的策略願景及路徑,像是與聯合國永續發展目標如何對應?

美國近來有傳統中介機構嘗試讓捐款人參與案件審查及資源分配的流程裡,乍聽之下似乎不合理,但其實這也是讓捐款人觀點呈現並與之對話的過程。中介機構如果要維持在公益生態圈裡的關鍵角色、持續在社福資源分配不均的問題中做出貢獻,就無法迴避時代的挑戰。


註解:

  1. Seth Stephens-Davidowitz (2017),《數據、謊言與真相》,臺北:商周出版,頁 227-231。
  2. 李宗榮、林宗弘主編(2017),《未竟的奇蹟:轉型中的台灣經濟與社會》,臺北:中央研究院。

原文「社福資源不均?中介機構角色與挑戰」刊載於聯合勸募,NPOst 獲授權轉載。

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