余宛如事件:性別平權的經濟觀點

余宛如事件:性別平權的經濟觀點

身為職業婦女的民進黨新科立委余宛如提案修正,主張將現行的立法院第十條議場規則「開會時,非出席列席及政府首長隨員與會場工作人員,不得進入會場。」改為「出列席委員及政府首長之 3 歲以下嬰幼兒,有餵哺或照顧之需要者,不受前項之規定。」此新聞在某報小編於臉書上冷嘲熱諷的私評後引發多方論戰。

另一方面,知名藝人 Selina 昨晚驚爆離婚,語氣間對於女性婚後角色多所猶疑困惑。此篇文章試圖從經濟發展及永續發展的角度,分析性別平權背後的意義。

臺灣女權:經濟活動和政治參與嚴重落後

2006 年,世界經濟論壇開始以性別落差指數」(Gender Gap Index)試著量測各國性別不平等的狀況,包含下列各項的女/男比例(完全平等為 100%):

  1. 經濟參與和機會:勞動參與率、薪資公平性、工作所得、管理及經營職、專技人員
  2. 教育程度:成人識字率、初中高等教育在學率
  3. 政治參與:國會議員、部會首長、總統任職年數
  4. 健康與生存:平均餘命、出生嬰兒

依據這個指標編製的《全球性別落差報告 2015》(Global Gender Gap Report 2015)指出,過去 10 年來全球性別落差的程度微幅改善,從 64% 提升到 68%。各個區域或各個國家的變化程度不一而足,但總體來說約 8 成的國家都有改善,主要的變化面向則在政治參與,提高近 10%,達到約 23%,但仍顯著偏低。如以當前的情況來看,政治參與不僅是最不平等的面向,同時在各國之間的差異也最大。

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圖片來源:世界經濟論壇

值得留意的是,臺灣所處的「東亞及太平洋」區域僅優於「中東及北非」,約略與「撒哈拉以南非洲」相當。相鄰的日本及韓國不管在全球或高所得國家中,性別落差的程度都相當糟糕,大概僅優於部份開發中國家及已開發的中東國家而已;中國則由於女嬰出生率偏低,幾乎墊底。

臺灣雖不在報告範圍內(原因你知道的),行政院主計總處仍有提供相同編製基礎的指數,約略名列全球第 41 位。除了政治參與較全球平均略低,其餘項目均較好。不過,如以高所得國家來看,臺灣在四個面向都剛好位於中段。

以全球的尺度來看,臺灣的性別不平等問題不算特別嚴重,特別是健康和教育這二個層面都已是全球最佳,但以所處的經濟發展階段來看,仍有很大的努力空間。也就是說,臺灣女性的個人發展條件並不遜於世上任何一個國家,但為何參與經濟或政治活動方面卻有顯著落差呢?這樣的壓抑來自何處?人們常說女性負擔照護責任是自願的(「不爽不要做」),但事實是,女性在這樣的力量下沒有太多選擇。

這次立委提案開放 3 歲以下嬰幼兒進入議場,不僅呈現女性參與經濟活動難以兼顧家庭的困境,正好也撩撥了向來由男性宰制的政治場域。除了折射男性在家庭生活難以辨識的模糊影像、女性對公共生活無法發聲的失語情境,更將這個控訴血淋淋地擺在爺們的公堂之上。

這誘使那股長期以來束縛女性參與經濟或政治的力量從雲霧裡探頭張牙舞爪,或不忍足睹、或惱羞成怒、或自我審查,加之媒體刻意引導淺化,公共討論空間被擠壓得十分狹小。此處無意深入探究這股力量的成因或社會架構裡的權力流轉,而是以臺灣主流的拚經濟觀點出發加以探討。

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由外而內依序為臺灣、全球平均、日本及韓國

女性賦權:經濟發展的重要元素

《全球性別落差報告》強調女性是國家或企業競爭力的重要元素,不僅僅是女性所代表的消費力量,還有在國家或企業中所扮演的溝通及領導角色,所以女性賦權(empowerment)所需的成本或權衡可以視為對競爭力的長期投資。同樣由世界經濟論壇公佈的《全球競爭力報告 2015-2016》中,臺灣雖排名全球第 15,女性勞動參與率低」卻是臺灣最差的三個項目之一。

也就是說,在主流的經濟發展思維底下,臺灣要改善競爭力完全無法忽視女性的經濟參與和機會。因此追求性別平權不只是用來偽裝的「政治正確」或點綴的「進步開明」,而是切切實實地與所謂的「經濟發展」扣連在一起。

世界經濟論壇關於政策面的實務建議包括育嬰假、嬰幼兒托育服務、稅制、工作條件及機會均等;企業面則是組織文化及領導者的承諾、設定指標、工作環境及公私分際改善、輔導及訓練等。這些聽來合理且明確的做法,落實卻常遇到困難。除了傳統文化對女性發展的制約,臺灣的超長工時壓縮家庭生活空間、嬰幼兒各項照顧成本皆高,不只托育、可支配所得成長低、不景氣只好屈就條件不佳的工作「向下競爭」等,額外的金錢成本或降低的經營效率更是直接挑戰資本主義的運作邏輯。

性別落差指數」本身就有類似問題,例如未考慮實際(而非法定)育嬰假天數男性育嬰假等支持系統、可支配所得、實際工時等。簡言之,如果只選擇簡單而快速有成效的方式,卻不深入理解結構中彼此纏繞的糾結,無助於改變整個系統。這樣的結果就是全球墊底的生育率嚴重削減社會未來發展潛力,也可能透過極端高所得家庭生育率的上升,擴散不平等的效應到未來世代。

另一方面,自 2008 年金融危機過後,從保守派到天主教宗都對資本主義大加撻伐,認為金融體系必須改革、新的價值觀必須重新掌舵,因此這危機被認為是「典範轉移」(paradigm shift)。2010 年時任法國財政部長的 Christine Lagarde(現為世界貨幣基金 IMF 總裁)曾開玩笑說,如果投資銀行「雷曼兄弟」(Lehman Brothers)是「雷曼姐妹」(Lehman Sisters)結果就可能大為不同。她指的是由女性主導較不會進行高風險投資,而且在巿場動盪時可以展現鎮定、負責及務實等特質,這個說法看似與小英接下搖搖欲墜的民進黨轉危為安、柱柱姐在風雨飄搖中代表國民黨角逐總統大位若合符節。

但另有評論及研究指出,對於風險的態度主要取決於個人、與性別無關,例如投資銀行高階主管不論性別大概都具有類似的冒險傾向,危機還是會發生。此外,將事件直接與性別刻板印象連結,卻淡化對資本主義架構下追求利潤極大化的指控,轉移了真正的焦點。

因此至少浮現二個問題:女性在經濟活動的系統裡到底扮演什麼角色,是否被正確認知?人類社會發展架構如若不再以資本主義為中心,性別平等的意義又是什麼?

性別平權:永續發展的關鍵

首先,以 GDP 衡量經濟活動早已飽受批評,許多女性從事的活動沒有被計入,或無法可靠地以貨幣價值呈現。未支薪的活動如處理家務及照顧嬰幼兒,驅動的不是經濟利益;社會變遷使得服務業或醫療照護比重增加,但這些無形服務的價值衡量不易;最後,質量或效率的改善不容易描繪,像是男性得以專注事業或家庭生活品質提升等。

根據聯合國統計開發中國家的女性較男性每天多花 3 小時在未支薪的活動,已發開國家則是 2 小時。倘若女性同樣付出的勞心勞力不包括在經濟模型裡,就難以理解她們在所謂「經濟發展」的重要性,以及個體自我發展與性別不平等之間的關聯。

其次,性別平權不只是公平正義的訴求,而是人類面臨掠奪式的資本主義帶來的氣候變遷及不平等的嚴峻威脅時,如何走向永續之路的關鍵元素。

今年甫上路的聯合國「永續發展目標」中,女性賦權便是其中一項,與貧窮、不平等、氣候變遷等並列。原因在於當前的人類社會問題彼此關聯,必須採取多元的整合策略同時處理,方能取得成效。舉例來說,依據《窮人的經濟學》,貧窮家庭有限資源的經濟決策者多是女性,因此,讓女性理解營養或衛生資訊格外重要;此外,女性參與公共審議可以提高公共性,也就是讓決策更有利於大多數人。換句話說,不管從經濟參與或政治參與的面向看來,女性都可以帶來關鍵性的變化。

一直以來,計算經濟價值時,正義、平等、關心、環境、信任、身心健康都不被考慮在內。人類啟蒙時代後解除對大自然的敬畏,乃至工業革命人定勝天的自我中心,催生了不顧後果的、對自然環境及社會資源的剝削榨取,以及永續發展的極大挑戰。女性擴大參與社會至少提醒了單一價值觀的危險,共同在全球經濟成長陷入泥淖時,思考經濟不成長要如何安身立命?如何修補與自然的關係?還要拚經濟嗎?什麼才是人類需要的經濟成長?要把什麼未來留給下一個世代?

胡說八道與問責

亞當斯密(Adam Smith)是近代巿場經濟的理論之父,他提出巿場機制是「看不見的手」,人們的自利動機可以讓經濟均衡運作。他認為自己之所以有晚餐,是因為肉販和麵包師傅等人可以由交易得到利益,透過巿場機制中層層的交易讓所有人得到自己要的東西。但誰替亞當斯密做晚飯》一書指出,亞當斯密大半的人生都是由母親照顧(用現代話說可能是「媽寶」),他卻總是忘了肉販和麵包師傅們的太太安頓家裡讓他們可以專心工作,或是母親每天張羅自己的晚餐。這被遺忘的拼圖的一角,隨著經濟學主流而成為論述中偌大的缺陷,直接導致後來的許多危機:

「我們會看到每個社會都因為要符合自己本身的胡說八道而受罪。」

倘若代議士的職責是受託監督政府運作確保國家社會前進的方向,而經濟或系統必須轉型已經是全球的共識那麼公眾問責(「立委是否浪費納稅人血汗錢或自肥」)也應以此為思考原則,而不是流於直覺式的反射。臺灣雖然性別不平等沒有特別嚴重,但一方面女性勞動參與率低影響競爭力,另一方面生育率極低造成社會發展隱憂,況且在轉型的永續發展路徑上確實需要女性更多參與,因此說性別平權是重大議題並不為過。只是它不夠急迫易被忽略,Emma Watson 在聯合國談到女權運動即表示:If not me, who? If not now, when?

模仿歐洲議會議員的模式雖然缺乏創意,尚且忽略在地文化脈絡可能產生的衝擊,但在國會殿堂試圖以最小幅度修法襯托更巨大的議題,至少凸顯了臺灣女性職場和政治場域的困境。至於能不能抛磚引玉引出更多的方案和深度討論,或讓公部門、企業或個人在原本的運作邏輯多點暫停、多想一下,在日常中逐漸開創新的格局,恐怕就對這個小動作寄予太高的期待了

就像即使選出了女總統,國內學者指出,經濟發展與分配正義與總統的個人性別實在沒什麼關係,關鍵還是在於產業創新與福利國家政策的長期影響。討論性別平權如果只在表淺的想像之中,而忽略了背後社會文化或意識型態裡那隻「看不見的手」,恐怕也就是自欺而已。

更何況,已經習以為常近乎下意識反射的刻板印象—如女性應該擔負照顧責任做個賢妻良母—也不是短時間就能改變的。

(本文刊於NPOst公益交流站

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