當洄瀾成為海嘯:從花蓮地震的災難捐款展望永續城鄉

當洄瀾成為海嘯:從花蓮地震的災難捐款展望永續城鄉

近來花蓮震災的捐款支用受到輿論關注,並經由媒體捲動大眾捐款人的情緒。與其直接探討爭議論點,既然捐款是對災難的回應,不妨從「如何面對災難」談起。

人道關懷與城巿韌性何以調和

隨著人類活動的影響,自然環境反饋的災難事件層出不窮,巨型災難也愈發頻繁。因此,聯合國展望 2030 年的「永續發展目標」(Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs)便將「永續城巿與社區」(Sustainable Cities and Communities)納入,其中特別值得注意的是強調「韌性」(resilience,註 1)的觀點:不只是重建受災地區的原貌,而是更能適應環境衝擊、保持動態平衡的永續發展。承此,回應災難的關鍵問題應該是,「究竟是否增強了城巿與社區的韌性」?

韌性觀點是災難管理及都巿計畫近 10 年來的典範轉移,主軸從降低「脆弱性」(vulnerability),轉變為主動增強「容受力」(將衝擊所造成的影響最小化的能力,capacity to minimise the disturbances)及「回復力」(受衝擊後達到新平衡所花費的時間,time to recover),也因此對於災難的防救及準備的思維大為不同(註 2)。前者側重於降低災難發生的機率、暴露於災難的風險,以及災難帶來的感受性衝擊;後者則藉由在減緩與調適等機制上的改變,增強城巿及社區的適應性,以維持災難降臨時的基本運作。具體來說,更需要組織再造的能力,包括公共資源投放、第三部門支持,及在地社群由下而上的力量展現(註 3)。

圖/Yun Heng Lin @ Unsplash

韌性是經濟、社會及文化各層面的總合展現,然而目前的花蓮震災捐款討論,似乎有將「是否應疏困特定產業」窄化為「不應疏困任何產業,而應完全用於災民身上」的傾向。首先,捐款是否應該完全由災民平分?一位社會工作者以莫拉克風災的經驗指出,設若款項全部交給災民,那便沒有經費進行產業復甦、推動就業方案、社區產業重建、災害潛勢研究、行銷觀光、進行文化與記憶傳承等。換句話說,個別受害戶遭遇的危難固然需要安頓,增強受災地區的韌性卻需要更總體的視野。

其次,是否所有城巿都不應該疏困產業?韌性的概念前題是,災難對每個城巿或個人的衝擊完全不同。相較於臺南等 6 都,花蓮所呈現的城巿圖像是人口持續減少及老化、依賴服務業、家戶可支配所得偏低、低收入戶比率較高、公共財政高度依賴中央補助,對於災難的挫折及復原也顯然較為艱辛,受災對象的認定也不應一概而論(註 4)。所以縣府提出「產業疏困是比照高雄或臺南方式辦理」來面對質疑,根本上就是錯誤的論述、其後的爭辯也沒有意義,因為各城巿本就不能同日而語。

圖/Lainmoon @ flickr, CC BY-NC-NA 2.0

另外,災難捐款支出可能存在「讓人不舒服的事實」(inconvenient truth),就以 2 年前的臺南地震為例──

  1. 相對於平日被嚴格檢視的公益組織勸募案,臺南捐款 2 年來支用比例僅 54%,使用僅達一半,這符合捐款人期待嗎?
  2. 反過來說,完全以支用比例來看災難募款案合理嗎?
  3. 其心理支持及社區重建等軟性計畫皆由賑災基金會補助(該基金會目前尚餘 50 億元),是否代表其實不用募那麼多?
  4. 依臺南巿府規劃顯示,將來已無鉅額支出,目前約 20 億的結餘如何處理似乎仍無定案。各種方案之中,只返還大額捐款人是否合理?詢問所有捐款人意願是否真的可行?
  5. 善款監督委員會的正當性是由誰授權,應如何課責?
  6. 按照這樣的支用情形,可不可以說:不是大眾捐給花蓮太少,而是捐給臺南太多?
  7. 結餘是否也代表過度保守的支出:目前只花 10 萬元更新救災設備(而且還是捐款人指定用途),並未用於增強自我治癒的城巿韌性,僅限縮於災難處置及重建,應該如何看待?

簡言之,此次爭議最深層的意義是:素樸的人道關懷及慈善想像,隱含的政治課責風險及專款專用的財務限制,很可能讓今後的災難捐款畫地自限為善意情緒的抒發,而無法更積極的回應災難的啟示。

2016 年 2 月高雄地震,臺南維冠大樓倒塌。圖/@ Wikimedia Commons

資訊落差影響信任累積,激化衝突

就在最近 10 年內,臺灣的災難捐款對象已經從紅十字會移動到公部門,這次的信任危機似乎又將捐款人推向看起來較有效率的企業基金會或在地知名的公益組織。真正激化這次衝突的是溝通不足,而這個問題比想像中複雜。

首先,災難捐款具有特殊的時間結構,如以花蓮震災發生後的單日捐款來看,第 8 天就已募得 ¾ 的款項(如下圖),也就是從搶救的黃金時間到臨時收容結束。在這段非常高張力的時期,縣府規劃並傳達募款用途的行政能量恐怕有限,而且對資源本就不豐的縣巿來說更是考驗。因此,「募款時應說清楚用途」這種說法聽來無懈可擊,卻無視真實的災難現場狀況,是典型的「站著說話不腰疼」。即便是此次申請公益勸募專案的紅十字會台積電基金會,募款計畫也十分粗略。

圖表/作者提供(資料來源:統計自花蓮縣政府 0206 震災捐款總表衛福部專戶捐款名冊

圖表/作者提供(資料來源:統計自花蓮縣政府 0206 震災捐款總表衛福部專戶捐款名冊

其次,災難發生後一週內的捐款多是出於對無情災難的共感,「必須做點什麼」。因此,這些捐款如果不能儘快達成某些具體成果,捐款人坐視他人痛苦的難受情緒或罪惡感便無從消解。從這個角度來看,災難捐款的捐款人強調「一定要交到災民手上」與個人特質無關,而是群眾在當下同步被召喚出極為強烈純粹的情緒而做出情感許諾,疊加在物質援助之上。愈是催化捐款人情緒或許愈能衝高捐款金額,但失落的控訴也會相對愈發尖銳。

事實上,預計募款 20 億元很早就被喊出來,代表縣府早就框架出災難處置所需的規模和用途,只是可能因為忙於救災、缺乏細節或怕對募款造成不利影響,而選擇不談,但愈晚處理資訊落差、愈可能醞釀風暴。

最後,雖然有善款監督委員會決議的護身符,但認為近半數的捐款用於紓困產業不會引起爭議,不免顯得過於天真。暫不論委員會的授權基礎為何,其會議記錄雖然提到這是暫時框列、貸款利息紓困不能與中央補助重複,而且金額需要更精確計算,卻沒有提供決策邏輯供參考。換句話說,捐款人應該問、縣府應該答的是:

  1. 為什麼產業紓困比其他事情重要?
  2. 分別補助 2 個產業 4 億元,這金額是怎麼估計的?依據是什麼?
  3. 這些依據是否有初步查證,是否經得起驗證?
  4. 選擇特定產業的原因是什麼?
  5. 該產業的補助資格為何?如何認定是災損還是經營不善?或是不用認定?
  6. 上述這些問題,只是資訊沒有公開而已,還是缺乏充分討論?
  7. 相較於公益組織申請公益勸募案細如牛毛的規定及文書要求,政府募捐是否不成比例的過於草率?

綜而言之,對災難捐款而言,主要溝通的關鍵時點應在開始募款後與緊急處置完成前,而非初始募款時;被召喚的群眾有情緒反應尚可以理解,但公部門願意透明及論理到什麼程度、官僚系統對災難管理的想像為何,不只關乎花蓮震災,也影響了公眾對執政者的信任。如果始終無法累積信任,便很可能陷入相互牽制的僵局。

圖/Tommy @ Unsplash

當洄瀾成為海嘯

花蓮震災捐款爭議對公益組織來說不無可供借鑑之處,除了前述的捐款人期待及溝通問題,隱而未顯的是捐款運用的權力拉扯。究竟應該以捐款人的意志為原則,或該交由公益組織判斷,在這個持續共舞的過程中,處理不慎便會造成傷害或損失。如果缺乏信任,捐款人對捐款指定用途、公益組織不敢有開拓性的作為,便容易陷入相互掣肘的囚徒困境。

如果能持續付出適當的溝通成本,讓捐款人更理解公共事務的複雜、讓公益組織勇於創新和嘗試,既可以充實對應社會議題的能量,同時也擴大了民主的疆域。過程中當然會有很多衝突和磨耗,也可能挑戰既有的程序和規則,這真正的考驗不只是對議題的關心和毅力,而是社會不同立場、階級及處境的人們,能創造出什麼樣的包容(inclusion)及社會團結。

圖/Kaizer Bienes @ Unsplash

臺灣除了地震頻仍,氣候變遷風險更是名列全球前 10,對照剛發佈的全球快樂指數,樂天知命和視人如己的精神或許才是這個蕞爾小島的韌性所在。但落實到具體層次,各方在這次爭議中的論述似乎尚未觸碰到問題核心。一方面,對災難管理的理解相對貧乏,想像及規劃的格局受限,仍以修補式的作為為主;另一方面,未能務實坦誠的對話,公共論述的品質難以提昇,信任便不易累積。

從花蓮震災捐款展望臺灣的永續發展,或許應該先試著取得這樣的共識:從資源的運用效率來看,遇到各式災難不能總是期望張開一張大網就接住所有掉下的人,而是讓各個小網更堅韌,彼此協力支援,或張或馳,方能更有餘裕應對風雲莫測的未來。


附註:

1. 韌性在此處被定義為「系統及其組成面對重大災威脅,能即時且有效率地預測、吸收、適應及復原的能力,措施包括確保、重建或改良基礎設施和機能」。

2. S. P. Simonovic (2016), Int. J. of Safety and Security Eng., Vol. 6, No. 2, 85-95

眼城底事,《韌性,城市不任性 I : 規劃專業的新思維,從荷蘭經驗談起

3. 泛科學,《災難,然後(五):社會的韌性

4. 花蓮與 6 都比較(資料來自主計總處):

(1)人口持續減少

圖表/作者提供

(2)持續老化

圖表/作者提供

(3)依賴服務業

圖表/作者提供

(4)家戶可支配所得偏低

圖表/作者提供

(5)低收入戶比率較高

圖表/作者提供

(6)公共財政高度依賴中央補助

圖表/作者提供

---

本文刊於 NPOst 公益交流站

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